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3D Scanning and Printing

Additive vs subtractive processes, testing software and Scanning

 

First Praxis / Test Printers

Testing the printers: I did some testing and challenges with the 3D Printer. We have different printers In the I found the this small but really plenty of detail ship for testing the bencher 3D Printers “the jolly 3D printing torture Test” Here

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The 3D model is designed to be printed 1:1 scale without support materials. It is challenging for most 3D printers, but the small volume (15.55 cm3) typically prints in well under two hours and does not require much material.

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This Object is usefull for testing the results for dimensional accuracy, tolerances, warping and deviations related to changes in printing parameters and material types.

Firt Day we have a diferent 3D Printers at Fab Lab Kamp-Lintfort. Nevertheless The aUltimakers anre the mos frequently use. I Prit 2 boats one in PLA and other in ABS, and I used the Rep Rap Printer, looking the quality v/s the speed. results

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Ultimaker: ABS Innofilm Black speed : 50 % Noozle Temp: 240ºC Bed Temperature: 70 ºC The first part is a little bit loose, because I left the seed in 100 %. As you can see in the picture, the finishing in the inclination area is not very good, therefore I decreased the speed to 50 obtaining better results. Time: around 5 hours

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Ultimaker: ABS Innofilm Black

speed : 50 %

Noozle Temp: 240ºC

Bed Temperature: 70 ºC

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Ultimaker: PLA Innofilm Silver Speed : 100 % Noozle Temp: 220ºC Bed Temperature: 60 ºC With this material the print test had a really good finishing, and also didn’t have any problems to print. In the previous experience with the printer some colors, like silver, black and pearl white, were easier to print while some colors, blue and 100% white, had some problems. Time: around 5 hours

With this material the print test had a really good finishing, and also didn’t have any problems to print. In the previous experience with the printer some colors, like silver, black and pearl white, were easier to print while some colors, blue and 100% white, had some problems. .

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Rep Rap: PLA 100% with Speed : 100 % Noozle Temp: 210ºC Bed Temperature: 60 ºC The printer works incredibly fast, only 1½ hour, unfortunately the slicer has a problem in the the conversion of the file some coordinates are not close as you can see in the picture, Which is the result the boat but without the top part of the benchy .

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I tried to print the benchy boat as a test in the Big Rep: The BigRep ONE v3 was created to make 3D printing for large-scale objects as easy as possible. You can find more information in the following link: https://bigrep.com/bigrep-one/ With the following parameter As you can see in the pictures these are the settings of the printer! Both of the tests worked really well, of course the it is not so much precise , due to the high of of the layers is around 0,7 mm In the first version of the Big Rep the printer worked.

With the following parameter Both of the tests worked really well, of course the it is not so much precise , due to the high of of the layers is around 0,7 mm

https://bigrep.com/bigrep-one/

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Modelling for Printing

iIn this model I generated a geometry that will be very difficult to obtain in others technique,. I chose to model a mesh simulation of a skin for facade that I want to use in the following section to integrate a parametric design for a skin in the development of my final Project. Like the Munich Arena Allianz

How to do it? I visited the following tutorial from Alan Rodríguez Carrillo you can find it Here

I used different Plugins in order to crate the segmentation and the finishing of the surface, in case of you want to use the date you have to download the Plugins MeshEdit LunchBox and WeaverBird

 

In the first Idea I wanted to finished thos patern for different proposes , such us, to apply this texture to the 3D scaner, in orded to create a first layer of skin(prosthesis). Second: y wanted to test the tolerance and flexibility of the surface printin this patter on a fabric

in the first and second version I use the comand "bake" for transforming the grasshoper data in to Rhino Data, neverthenles thos comand, doesn't consider the thickness of shells

in ths case I could easily transform my object using different bacics geometries in the loft and applying in different forms

I never used grashopper for 3D printing , In this time I test with two different moles one onli with the one surface, In this one I expected that the I had to incresse the thickness of shell in order to have a stable model. as I send the model the G-code interpretated this model als a closed object, and he entelry Volumen was printed with the inFill.

for the second option I did internal and external Helipses, In order to created a thickness of the shells , in this case the patter cover the hold surface, and funcition in that way that I wanted to print my object.

Modelling Problems some ofthe small elevated points are in not doing in the first part, due to the variation o distace between the main point and the points of the mesh. you can see this porvariation in the begininig of thint that the wbrim doesn't touch the hold area of the object in the Buildplate

Print Problems In the first printed Layers the Printed looks the the Print Archive doesn't works, I changed the Speed to 50%, In fact the ABS aims better quality of the printings, with less speed

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Ultimaker: ABS Innofilm Black speed : 50 % Noozle Temp: 240ºC Bed Temperature: 70 ºC The first part is a little bit loose, because I left the seed in 100 %. As you can see in the picture, the finishing in the inclination area is not very good, therefore I decreased the speed to 50 obtaining better results.

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Ultimaker: PLA Innofilm Silver Speed : 100 % Noozle Temp: 220ºC Bed Temperature: 60 ºC With this material the print test had a really good finishing, and also didn’t have any problems to print. In the previous experience with the printer some colors, like silver, black and pearl white, were easier to print while some colors, blue and 100% white, had some problems. Time: around 5 hours

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Printed object

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3D Scanning

Or Reverse engineering ? Reverse engineering is taking apart an object to see how it works in order to duplicate or enhance the object. The practice, taken from older industries, is now frequently used on computer hardware and software. Software reverse engineering involves reversing a program's machine code Def

I tried to test diferent 3D scanners that we habe a Fab-lab Kamp-Lintfort, acorrding to the Object or body

we hab the following 3D scanners:

Sense

Eva- Artec

David

I did my first trial with the Sense from 3D Systems, I focused on the the scanner of the Head and upper limbs

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I did the second test specially for the Arm.

the position of the Arm for designing Prosthesis and Orthotics is very important , Beacuse it defins the right position of the limb

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you can edit the scan , using errase or bulid the hold mclosed mash, But in this softwar is not allow to do multiples scans in one.

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I did my first trial with the Sense from 3D Systems, I focused on the scanner of the Head and upper limbs I did different trials with this scanner. It is really easy to use and edit because with one recording you can achieve scanning the hold object. For an arm a perfect size ,for a person is not to precise. I scanned my arm in order to design a splint (see more detail in the MyOrthotic, and Composites assignment). The position of the arm for designing Prosthesis and Orthotics is very important, because it defines the right position of the limb. The design was almost closed and enough for the issio that I needed. You can edit the scan, using erase, or build the hold closed mesh, but this software doesn’t allow to do multiple scans in one. The second test that I did was with the 3D Artec Eva. The scanner is very precise, but takes much more time not only with the edition, but also with the recording, if you want to take the hold form. One student had a project to scan a miniature form and we tried to use the David Scanner. This scanner has much more precision, and you can also add more points for tacking in order to increase the precision of the shapes. Nevertheless, the proper domain of this scanners requires more time in order to use the hold benefits of the scanner.

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Making my own Scan

FabScan  Media Lab Aachen.

for our workshops in the Fab Lab, we wan to implement the FabSacan , doing this as a workshops wit hthe students fron the region Wesel near to the Fab Lab KampLintfort

To get the data an documentation please vit the website from Mario Lukas Fab scan Pi , an the Media Lab RWTH Aachen.

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Modelling Scanning and Printing: MYOrthotic arm Splint Design

 

Scan I use the Sense scanner because, this scanner can do in a quick and simple form the construction of the mesh. Due to the condition of the patient he can not hold or extend the finger for a long period of time and this scanner provides a good result in a short time. First of all, I did the test with the forearm in the top part of the arm using, thinking in the design of the palm splint, I changed a little bit the idea making the splint in the back side of the hand, and for this reason I did a second 3D Scanner of the hand. Meshmixer: After first step was to scan the arm of Mr. Miller I proceed to edit the scanner in meshmixer Deleting and improving the mesh. Some of the common useful functions are: Select> transform: you can find the function offset the mesh, in this case to leave a space for the textile between the skin and the splint. Edit> cut plane: for better orienting and cleaning the model quickly. Edit> make solid: for making closed bodies, in my case I had to close the mesh. In order to get better results in the edition of the model I converted this in a free form in 360 Fusion. Analyse> Inspector : This is a great help to analyze the form and close the hold mesh in case of some errors in the original scan. IMPORTANT: In fusion you don't have the possibility to make offset of the objects, only scale or thicken, which are different functions in case of adding a material, in my case the textile for the orthotic. You have to consider this issue before working in Fusion and editing it in a mesh editing software. 360 Fusion: Import the 3D

MODEL using the free form panel > insert > Insert mesh: it permits to import the model in the original scale and also select the units of the model. In Fusion you can find the function Free Form for editing the 3D Scanner and create a Free Form with the Scanner I use the tool: PULL. This tool creates a mesh of nodes in X and Y direction which is attached in the original 3D Scan. You can edit this form and combine it with other solids in order to do your model parametric. The free form function is not so much parametric, but it permits to edit the scanner in a better form. After finishing the form, you can return to the panel of the solids selecting the solid tool. It is total parametric, and you can recording the design History , in case that you want to change the parameters afterwards. After this construction, I did the editing of this for cutting the solid with a splint plane. In order to add more solids I recommend to place planes in order to have a better orientation. I did a plan for positioning the electronics, and also to make the container of the motors. I did the joints of the fingers, using the “pattern path tool” making the for and connection with nylon screws with a 3 mm diameter. Clearance : 0.2 mm For printing in ultimaker. The thumb joint is thought in the way, that it will have the movement in a perpendicular position, therefore the plane is in an offset in Z axis. When your splint is finished you can select the body and export it. In case that you have different bodies, you have to select the root of your data on the browser, deselect the part that you don’t need and export the STL data as a one body. TRIALS: I tried to print the splint in one piece. The splint for Frank measures 30 mm, therefore I used the Big Rep 3D printer which has the volume to print a 1000 cubic mm Volume to 3D Printing. Nevertheless, the results are not really well done. In flexible materials the printer has a difference of the printing nozzle, Printing in vertical for. In a horizontal direction the printer stops suddenly, and the finishing with the holes for the Velcro band were in a rough form it mean that I could use for a wearable application. Usability and design consideration: I modeled the splint in two parts; one with a flexible material and the other with a rigid material. In the modelling you have to consider the attachment of both parts. I cut the splint in an organic shape in order to modify and make a harmonic and stable union of both parts. 3D Printed splint of the rigid part, backside of the hand. 3D Printing Setting sin cura :

TRIALS: 1 No problems! Ultimaker : PLA Innofilm pearl white speed : 70 % Nozzle Temp: 220ºC Bed Temperature: 60 ºC Brim : 100 As you can see in the pictures you have to incinate a little bit the for in order to use the whole area of the printer. 3D Printed Splint of the external part of the forearm.

TRIALS: 10

Ultimaker: Innoflex 45% natural white Speed: 20 % Nozzle Temp: 220ºC Bed Temperature: 90ºC Brim: 100

IMPORTANT: Deactivate the retraction in Cura settings! The material is extremely difficult to print. The first time I tried to print with FABRIAL which is a hypoallergenic material. Nevertheless it didn't work and I also didn’t find very much information about the troubleshooting with the material. Problems: The filament creates a Jam in the extruder mechanism: because the Ultimaker extruder is in the back part of the printer, the carrying of the material until the nozzle, you can put oil and before printing make sure that the printer has a clean nozzle otherwise, you have to clean the nozzle various times with the Atomic Method, in order to optimize the flow of the material. The brim doesn't stick in the bed platform: if you print with this material you have to make a big brim, and if it doesn't stick in the platform you can add some metal pieces in order to push the brim into the build plate and also to keep the heat in in the brim. You can also paste the material, but it can also be a little bit difficult to take off the platform after the print process. Fingers: The design of the fingers takes inspiration from the 3D printed rehabilitation Orthosis form ZMorph and Eliza Wrobe, thriving to understand the movement of the fingers and also the movements. The design of each finger is made in 360 Fusion with modifications to improve the use and comfortability of the phalanges design orthotic, basically in the joints assembly and the structure, which is responsible for distributing the force in the fingers. The printed parts are printed with Formlabs and with clear resin, providing a flat and fine surface that allows a smooth and comfortable contact with the skin. The design of the fingers is based on different Loft sequences. The design is parametric in order to change the values in the parametric window Modify > change parameters. In this way, you can modify the design of the fingers for orthotics in other similar cases. I based the implementation of the phalanges design in the index finger, it being the most important finger in the hand. TRIALS: I tried to print the finger in one piece doing a kind of a spring making a flexible and minimizing the area of printing. 360 Fusion data: Unfortunately, reducing the area of printed material in the joint doesn’t really and making this foldable 3D Printing finger the space between the hole area too small therefore I prefered to work again with the separate phalanges and making a better joint mechanism. The impression, with the flexible material Innoflex 45 % orange was successful. Nevertheless the interior part came out a little bit rough, which means that I have to manipulate it after the printing process or use another printer with more precision put with flexible material. I tried to do the scanner and take measurements of the fingers. For construction, it works really well. The joint mechanism permits to print the pieces and join the phalanges, having the whole movement of 90 degrees, as you can see in the model. Troubleshooting and future work: I did several experiments making measurements of each finger. I tried to scan each finger too, but I still wasn’t able to find the right adjustments for Franks fingers, it means that I probably have to implement another method of using molding and casting to achieve the perfect size of his hand.

 

PLEASE SEE THE PICTURES IN PROJECT DEVELOPMENT > DESIGN

 

CONCLUSIONS: These both techniques have huge variables and properties, so you have to select the right technique and the right material for the application. Each material requires a testing time, in this sense, the changes of the factors are exponential in the design and production of an object. Described what you learned by testing the 3D printers : X Shown how you designed/made your object and explained why it could not be made subtractively X Scanned an object: X Outlined problems and how you fixed them: X Included your design files and ‘hero shot’ photos of the scan and the final object hacer una foto :

FILES:

Rhino / grasshopper Skin. model and STL,

Brazo(arm) scan and STL Data.

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© Copyright 2016. Adriana Cabrera