# Machine assignment

The project begins when a problem is identified in all CNC machines (Computer Numerical Control) that has been in the market until the middle of 2017. The problem lies in the limitation of the movement of CNC machines to follow vectors that exceed their size. It was found that the problem is related to the location of the motors that generate the movement X, Y and Z. In a common CNC the motors are outside the moving head; which generates that the position of the motor (for X, Y and / or Z) is the main limitation for the movement of the head because the head cannot physically surpass the motor because it is the one who moves the moving head towards it. The point is detailed in the following graph.

The solution that has been proposed to solve the problem of limiting the movement of CNC machines to follow vectors that exceed their size has been to innovate the common design of CNC machines by moving all the motors to the moving head, which allows That the movable head has an unlimited movement thanks to the motors of the X, Y and Z axes share the same starting point as the point Ø °. Therefore, the movement of the machine can follow vectors and make 3D drawings at different scales.

The concept coincides with two important aspects that have made this project possible:

The geographical location.- One of the main characteristics of Ecuador is that it is located in the equatorial line, which divides the world into the two North and South poles. In Ecuador is also the monument to the half of the world that marks the point 0¨0 “0. Ø ° is the same point that identifies this project and differentiates it from others.

Geometry.- By placing all the motors in the machine head, it has been achieved that both the Cartesian geometric origin of the machine and the origin of the movement of Ø ° CNC share the same place in the machine. In this way it is possible to generate a machine with a free and unlimited movement. Ø ° CNC has two main approaches: • Develop a Numerical Control Machine (CNC) with ideas and inventive Ecuadorian. • Generate an “open and free code” development in order to involve Ecuadorians in the learning, development and application of CNC technology to solve local problems.

Ecuador CNC Project has two main approaches:

· Develop a Numerical Control Machine (CNC) in Ecuador with ideas and Ecuadorian inventive.

· Generate a development of “Open and Free Code” in order to involve more Ecuadorians in the development and application of CNC technology to solve local problems.

Ø ° CNC has started the program together with FabAcademy 2017 in Ecuador. Where the instructor Roberto Gallo and the team of students conformed by Angel Cuasqui, Guillermo Guerra, Juan Guerra, Juan Marcos Santacruz and Pablo Santacruz carry the project in march. Until this moment the project has passed the tests of movement more complex which has validated its operation. The project will be presented at the largest Fab13 digital manufacturing event in Chile this year and has been made possible thanks to the support of Fab Lab Connect.

### INTRODUCTION

In the Mechanical Design, we apply a modular machine configuration. Join motors in it's head is the the principal idea, with electronic machine components. The purpose is to adapt this part of any structure and to change the size of the machine for any project.

In the head, you can put something components like laser, spindle, extruder, etc. You can considerate as variable. And another variable is adaptable size, changing guides can modify the work space for your project machine.

This project is the basic machine for students uses in their finals projects: Farmbot, Laser machine, 3D ceramic printer, Ceramic injection CNC and automatized wheelchair.

### CONCEPT

We take the size problem of CNC machine and we work in this area. In the design, we make a brainstorming and all collaborate whit the problems and the solutions of the project.

The idea is to integrate all the stepper motors system movement on head, and the electronic control.

Is constituted by: three stepper motors, part of electronic control and tools that each student uses in your final project, the stepper motors are voltage: 4.2V, current: 1.5A, Step angle 1.8 grades and torque 5.5 Kg*cm, the control electronic make Raspberry Pi, Gestalt, Arduino and stepper shield, the axes are constituted for two steel tubes for guide and one threaded rod for the movement and to vary size chance the guides tubes.

#### Electronic

We tested the stepper motors of axes x, y and z using Arduino mega, CNC shield and Arduino uno.Here Performed the test it created a shield of coupling between Arduino mega and CNC shield Here Also make a Fabnet, To replace of Arduino, try a mechanize gestalt nodes, but could not complete for do not have somethings electronics components described here, the acquisition of gestalt nodes is done and we are waiting for them.

#### Softwware and Architecture

The graphic interface between user and machine is Raspberry Pi board, it is responsible to items positioning and variable state verification and we experiment with DC motor, the experimentation was to learn how to it works a spindle it can be use in CNC machine with a spindle.

All the information for the experimentation of DC motor you can find here and the investigation of the Raspberry Pi Board find them here.

#### Design and Mechanical

The design was based in change the idea of conventional machine CNC, our idea is integrated all the elements in the head of the machine, base in fractal theory.Information and In the mechanical design, we take the need a variation of the area work break paradigms of a predetermined work area giving property adjust the size to the user need. prototyped.