Greetings, here lies my work-log at

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networking and communications



index



/Assignment goals


/Intro / overview

This week was the most difficult to comprehend, spent most of the allocated time researching various standards and learning about ham radios, definitely applying for a license. I've decided to learn by replicating Neil's series of bridge and node boards demonstrating 'Asynchronous bus' serial communication .



/Designing the board and stuffing it



/Programming workflow

An arduino uno as ISP was used to program both the bridge and the node boards



Understanding 'asynchronous bus'


/Code and datasheet readings

I used Neil's code straight up, I've begun to start learning concepts of microcontrollers like their respective registers, and different memory types whilst trying to understand the code.

Here is what i understand of the code -

Code on the local boards

  //
//
// hello.bus.45.c
//
// 9600 baud serial bus hello-world
//
// Neil Gershenfeld
// 11/24/10
//
// (c) Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2010
// Permission granted for experimental and personal use;
// license for commercial sale available from MIT.
//

#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 

#define output(directions,pin) (directions |= pin) // set port direction for output
#define input(directions,pin) (directions &= (~pin)) // set port direction for input
#define set(port,pin) (port |= pin) // set port pin
#define clear(port,pin) (port &= (~pin)) // clear port pin
#define pin_test(pins,pin) (pins & pin) // test for port pin
#define bit_test(byte,bit) (byte & (1 << bit)) // test for bit set
#define bit_delay_time 100 // bit delay for 9600 with overhead
#define bit_delay() _delay_us(bit_delay_time) // RS232 bit delay
#define half_bit_delay() _delay_us(bit_delay_time/2) // RS232 half bit delay
#define led_delay() _delay_ms(100) // LED flash delay

#define led_port PORTB
#define led_direction DDRB
#define led_pin (1 << PB0)

#define serial_port PORTB
#define serial_direction DDRB
#define serial_pins PINB
#define serial_pin_in (1 << PB3)
#define serial_pin_out (1 << PB4)

#define node_id '0'

void get_char(volatile unsigned char *pins, unsigned char pin, char *rxbyte) {
   //
   // read character into rxbyte on pins pin
   //    assumes line driver (inverts bits)
   //
   *rxbyte = 0;
   while (pin_test(*pins,pin))
      //
      // wait for start bit
      //
      ;
   //
   // delay to middle of first data bit
   //
   half_bit_delay();
   bit_delay();
   //
   // unrolled loop to read data bits
   //
   if pin_test(*pins,pin)
      *rxbyte |= (1 << 0);
   else
      *rxbyte |= (0 << 0);
   bit_delay();
   if pin_test(*pins,pin)
      *rxbyte |= (1 << 1);
   else
      *rxbyte |= (0 << 1);
   bit_delay();
   if pin_test(*pins,pin)
      *rxbyte |= (1 << 2);
   else
      *rxbyte |= (0 << 2);
   bit_delay();
   if pin_test(*pins,pin)
      *rxbyte |= (1 << 3);
   else
      *rxbyte |= (0 << 3);
   bit_delay();
   if pin_test(*pins,pin)
      *rxbyte |= (1 << 4);
   else
      *rxbyte |= (0 << 4);
   bit_delay();
   if pin_test(*pins,pin)
      *rxbyte |= (1 << 5);
   else
      *rxbyte |= (0 << 5);
   bit_delay();
   if pin_test(*pins,pin)
      *rxbyte |= (1 << 6);
   else
      *rxbyte |= (0 << 6);
   bit_delay();
   if pin_test(*pins,pin)
      *rxbyte |= (1 << 7);
   else
      *rxbyte |= (0 << 7);
   //
   // wait for stop bit
   //
   bit_delay();
   half_bit_delay();
   }

void put_char(volatile unsigned char *port, unsigned char pin, char txchar) {
   //
   // send character in txchar on port pin
   //    assumes line driver (inverts bits)
   //
   // start bit
   //
   clear(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   //
   // unrolled loop to write data bits
   //
   if bit_test(txchar,0)
      set(*port,pin);
   else
      clear(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   if bit_test(txchar,1)
      set(*port,pin);
   else
      clear(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   if bit_test(txchar,2)
      set(*port,pin);
   else
      clear(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   if bit_test(txchar,3)
      set(*port,pin);
   else
      clear(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   if bit_test(txchar,4)
      set(*port,pin);
   else
      clear(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   if bit_test(txchar,5)
      set(*port,pin);
   else
      clear(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   if bit_test(txchar,6)
      set(*port,pin);
   else
      clear(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   if bit_test(txchar,7)
      set(*port,pin);
   else
      clear(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   //
   // stop bit
   //
   set(*port,pin);
   bit_delay();
   //
   // char delay
   //
   bit_delay();
   }

void put_string(volatile unsigned char *port, unsigned char pin, PGM_P str) {
   //
   // send character in txchar on port pin
   //    assumes line driver (inverts bits)
   //
   static char chr;
   static int index;
   index = 0;
   do {
      chr = pgm_read_byte(&(str[index]));
      put_char(&serial_port, serial_pin_out, chr);
      ++index;
      } while (chr != 0);
   }

void flash() {
   //
   // LED flash delay
   //
   clear(led_port, led_pin);
   led_delay();
   set(led_port, led_pin);
   }

int main(void) {
   //
   // main
   //
   static char chr;
   //
   // set clock divider to /1
   //
   CLKPR = (1 << CLKPCE);
   CLKPR = (0 << CLKPS3) | (0 << CLKPS2) | (0 << CLKPS1) | (0 << CLKPS0);
   //
   // initialize output pins
   //
   set(serial_port, serial_pin_out);
   input(serial_direction, serial_pin_out);
   set(led_port, led_pin);
   output(led_direction, led_pin);
   //
   // main loop
   //
   while (1) {
      get_char(&serial_pins, serial_pin_in, &chr);
      flash();
      if (chr == node_id) {
         output(serial_direction, serial_pin_out);
         static const char message[] PROGMEM = "node ";
         put_string(&serial_port, serial_pin_out, (PGM_P) message);
         put_char(&serial_port, serial_pin_out, chr);
         put_char(&serial_port, serial_pin_out, 10); // new line
         led_delay();
         flash();
         input(serial_direction, serial_pin_out);
         }
      }
   }   



/File downloads



/conclusion

I would like to learn the following the following protocols; bluetooth low energy because it seems like the most suitable option for IoT applications, WiFi - because it is the most prelavant sub-networls one would encounter in daily life and also I Can't wait to become a licensed ham radio operator